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Quarterly published in print and online "Inventi Impact: Pharm Biotech & Microbio" publishes high quality unpublished as well as high impact pre-published research and reviews catering to the needs of researchers and professionals. This journal focuses on methods, applications and findings in pharmaceutical microbiology and biotechnology. Papers from all relevant areas such as antimicrobial studies, tissue culture technology, gene methods, enzyme technology, recombinant DNA technology, antibiotics screening and production are invited.
Background: The experimental murine model of leishmaniasis has been widely used to characterize the immune\r\nresponse against Leishmania. CBA mice develop severe lesions, while C57BL/6 present small chronic lesions under\r\nL. amazonensis infection. Employing a transcriptomic approach combined with biological network analysis, the\r\ngene expression profiles of C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after L. amazonensis infection in vitro, were\r\ncompared. These strains were selected due to their different degrees of susceptibility to this parasite.\r\nResults: The genes expressed by C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after infection, differ greatly, both\r\nwith respect to absolute number as well as cell function. Uninfected C57BL/6 macrophages express genes involved\r\nin the deactivation pathway of macrophages at lower levels, while genes related to the activation of the host\r\nimmune inflammatory response, including apoptosis and phagocytosis, have elevated expression levels. Several\r\ngenes that participate in the apoptosis process were also observed to be up-regulated in C57BL/6 macrophages\r\ninfected with L. amazonensis, which is very likely related to the capacity of these cells to control parasite infection.\r\nBy contrast, genes involved in lipid metabolism were found to be up-regulated in CBA macrophages in response\r\nto infection, which supports the notion that L. amazonensis probably modulates parasitophorous vacuoles in order\r\nto survive and multiply in host cells.\r\nConclusion: The transcriptomic profiles of C57BL/6 macrophages, before and after infection, were shown to be\r\ninvolved in the macrophage pathway of activation, which may aid in the control of L. amazonensis infection, in\r\ncontrast to the profiles of CBA cells....
Purpose: To determine the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) load in peripheral blood specimens of patients with renal abnormality reporting to the nephrology unit and to correlate the viral load with different biomarkers in serum.\r\n Materials and Methods: Fifty peripheral blood specimens were obtained from patients reporting to the nephrology unit and these patients were categorized into three groups as Group I: Renal Transplant patients, Group II: Dialysis patients, Group III: Other patients. with elevated liver enzymes and renal pathology. Peripheral blood specimens collected from kidney transplant recipients (n = 11), dialysis (n=17) and others (n =22) were subjected to detection of antibodies to HCV, determination of viral load by Real Time PCR and biochemical profiling consisting of estimation of bilirubin, total protein, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Antibodies to HCV were detected by ELISCANÃ¢â??Â¢ HCV and the viral load by using HCV RG RTPCR kit (QIAGEN, Hilden). Statistical analysis - T test and the logistic regression analysis assessing the correlation between viral load and serum bilirubin, Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase, total protein were performed using SPSS software version 14.0\r\n Results: Antibodies to HCV were detected by ELISA in 39 (78%) peripheral blood samples and genomic HCV was detected in 31 (62%) by RTPCR. In 8 (16%) patients, HCV antibodies only were detected and RTPCR did not reveal the presence of HCV in these specimens. Logistic regression analysis performed on biochemical parameters and viral load revealed correlation between alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels and viral load (Hosmer and Lemehow test P value< 0.05 statistically significant).\r\n Conclusion: Determination of viral load is a reliable diagnostic test in detection of HCV infection. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase enzyme could be associated with increased viral load. To the best of our knowledge, this finding is the first being reported in Indian literature....
A chemical investigation of the leaves of Tabernaemontana inconspicua Stapf. led to the
isolation of a new phenylpropanol derivative, namely irisdichototin G (1), together with nine
known compounds, including one polyol derivative, dambonitol (2); three alkaloids, 10-
hydroxycoronaridine (3), voacristine (4) and vobasine (5); two triterpenes lupeol (6), betulinic acid
(7) and three sterols, sitosterol (8), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9) and stigmasterol (10). The
structure of the new compound, as well as those of the known ones, was established by means of
spectroscopic methods: NMR analysis (1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H-COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY),
high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and comparisons with previously reported data.
Among the known compounds, compound 2 was firstly reported from the family Apocynaceae.
Compounds 1–5 were tested for their antimicrobial effects against three Gram-negative organisms
associated with human wound and systemic infections, namely Haemophilus influenzae 9435337A,
Klebsiella pneumoniae 17102005 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2137659B. Compounds 1, 3, and 5
showed significant antimicrobial effects with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5
μg/mL, 62.5 μg/mL and 7.81 μg/mL, respectively, against Haemophilus influenzae, whereas
compounds 1 and 5 showed significant antimicrobial effects, with a MIC value of 31.25 μg/mL
against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, compound 3 showed significant antimicrobial activity,
with a MIC value of 31.25 μg/mL against Klebsiella pneumoniae....
Background: Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of\nbloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification,\nin this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted\nonto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST\nbased on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood\ncultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term\nsubculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the\nmethod currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or\nSensititre on isolated colonies.\nResults: The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative\nbacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and\nPR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.\n5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 %\ncategorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 %\ncategorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no\nsignificant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci.\nConclusions: This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly,\nthese results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly\nconfirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream infections....
Overexpression of the ABC transporter genes patA and patB confers efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus\npneumoniae and is also linked to pneumococcal stress responses. Although upregulation of patAB has been observed in many\nlaboratory mutants and clinical isolates, the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of these genes are unknown. In this\nstudy, we aimed to identify the cause of high-level constitutive overexpression of patAB in M184, a multidrug-resistant mutant\nof S. pneumoniae R6. Using a whole-genome transformation and sequencing approach, we identified a novel duplication of a\n9.2-kb region of the M184 genome which included the patAB genes. This duplication did not affect growth and was semistable\nwith a low segregation rate. The expression levels of patAB in M184 were much higher than those that could be fully explained by\ndoubling of the gene dosage alone, and inactivation of the first copy of patA had no effect on multidrug resistance. Using a green\nfluorescent protein reporter system, increased patAB expression was ascribed to transcriptional read-through from a tRNA gene\nupstream of the second copy of patAB. This is the first report of a large genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance in S.\npneumoniae and also of a genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance by a promoter switching mechanism....
Background: To facilitate the screening of large quantities of new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we describe a\r\ncost-effective method for high throughput prokaryotic expression of AMPs. EDDIE, an autoproteolytic mutant of\r\nthe N-terminal autoprotease, Npro, from classical swine fever virus, was selected as a fusion protein partner. The\r\nexpression system was used for high-level expression of six antimicrobial peptides with different sizes: Bombininlike\r\npeptide 7, Temporin G, hexapeptide, Combi-1, human Histatin 9, and human Histatin 6. These expressed AMPs\r\nwere purified and evaluated for antimicrobial activity.\r\nResults: Two or four primers were used to synthesize each AMP gene in a single step PCR. Each synthetic gene\r\nwas then cloned into the pET30a/His-EDDIE-GFP vector via an in vivo recombination strategy. Each AMP was then\r\nexpressed as an Npro fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion proteins existed as inclusion bodies in\r\nthe cytoplasm and the expression levels of the six AMPs reached up to 40% of the total cell protein content. On in\r\nvitro refolding, the fusion AMPs was released from the C-terminal end of the autoprotease by self-cleavage, leaving\r\nAMPs with an authentic N terminus. The released fusion partner was easily purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. All\r\nrecombinant AMPs displayed expected antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Micrococcus luteus and S. cerevisia.\r\nConclusions: The method described in this report allows the fast synthesis of genes that are optimized for overexpression\r\nin E. coli and for the production of sufficiently large amounts of peptides for functional and structural\r\ncharacterization. The Npro partner system, without the need for chemical or enzymatic removal of the fusion tag, is\r\na low-cost, efficient way of producing AMPs for characterization. The cloning method, combined with bioinformatic\r\nanalyses from genome and EST sequence data, will also be useful for screening new AMPs. Plasmid pET30a/\r\nHis-EDDIE-GFP also provides green/white colony selection for high-throughput recombinant AMP cloning....
Pneumonia is the single largest infectious cause of death in children worldwide\nand also a form of an acute respiratory infection that affects the lung.\nThe purpose of the study was to develop a new approach to treat antibiotic-\nresistant K. pneumoniae infection. This study aimed in quest of a drug to\ncombine with ciprofloxacin, a broad spectrum antibiotic frequently used to\ntreat lung infections. Methodology: A total of 23 lung infection bacterial samples\nwere collected and studied against 14 antibiotics of different classes.\nThe disk diffusion method was performed to determine synergy screening,\nMIC value, and qualitative toxicity analysis of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol\ncombination. Results: After primary screening of antibiotic susceptibility,\nthey were categorized into multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively\ndrug-resistant (XDR) and pan drug-resistant (PDR) pathogens where 9 isolates\nwere MDR, 5 were XDR and 3 isolates were PDR. Furthermore, they\nwere trialed in combination ciprofloxacin along with other 7 drugs in disk\ndiffusion to explore the synergistic effect. The combination of ciprofloxacin\nand moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol were found to be synergic.\nThen the MIC test was done for the combination ciprofloxacin and\nchloramphenicol....................................
Biological oxygen demand (BOD3) is among the most important diagnostic parameters for the determination of water quality in natural water ways and waste streams. Present paper gives a report on water quality of different natural sources in western region of Maharashtra on Bhimariver by BOD3 testing method. The investigation revealed that all the tested water samples i.e. well water, river water, tap water and mineral water were having very low values of BOD3. Therefore all samples were in category of clean water with very low organic matter and fit for human consumption and other purposes....
Single antimicrobial therapy has been unable to resist the global spread of bacterial resistance. Literatures of available in vitro and\nin vivo studies were reviewed and the results showed that low frequency ultrasound (LFU) has a promising synergistic bactericidal\neffect with antibiotics against both planktonic and biofilm bacteria. It also can facilitate the release of antibiotics from medical\nimplants. As a noninvasive and targeted therapy, LFU has great potential in treating bacterial infections. However, more in-depth\nand detailed studies are still needed before LFU is officially applied as a combination therapy in the field of anti-infective treatment....
The proteins and enzymes serves wide variety of application in pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries for catalysis of particular chemical reaction; however instability of these proteins restricts their use because of loss of structural integrity and biological functions. Various methods have been reported for stabilization of proteins. The present communication embodies an in-depth discussion on protein stability including thermodynamic and kinetic stability and different aspects of protein stability. It also includes the various approaches for stability enhancement of proteins such as immobilization, cross linking, encapsulation of protein in polymeric material, chemical modification and protein engineering of the proteins are discussed with suitable examples in detail....
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