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Quarterly published in print and online "Inventi Impact: Nanotech & Bionic Engg" publishes high quality unpublished as well as high impact pre-published research and reviews catering to the needs of researchers and professionals. This multidisciplinary journal covers all recent advances in the growing field of nanotechnology and bionic engineering. The journal welcomes papers related to nanofabrication, nanoprobes, nanostructures, nanoelectronics, nano-optics, nano-mechanics, nanodevices, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. The bionic engineering segment focuses on fundamental understandings of animals and plants for bionic engineering, such as locomotion, structures, composites, morphology and physical properties of plants and natural materials, and applications of such understandings in engineering, technology and designs.
Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is considered one of the promising routes to solve the
energy and environmental crises. However, developing efficient and low-cost photocatalysts remains
an unsolved challenge. In this work, ultrathin 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets are coupled with flat
TiO2 nanoparticles as face-to-face 2D/2D heterojunction photocatalysts through a simple electrostatic
self-assembly method. Compared with g-C3N4 and pure TiO2 nanosheets, 2D/2D
TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunctions exhibit effective charge separation and transport properties that
translate into outstanding photocatalytic performances. With the optimized heterostructure composition,
stable hydrogen evolution activities are threefold and fourfold higher than those of pure
TiO2, and g-C3N4 are consistently obtained. Benefiting from the favorable 2D/2D heterojunction
structure, the TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalyst yields H2 evolution rates up to 3875 μmol·g−1·h−1 with an
AQE of 7.16% at 380 nm....
Background: The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass offers a series of challenges for biochemical processing\ninto biofuels and bio-products. For the first time, we address these challenges with a biomimetic system via a mild\nyet rapid Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (here after B-8) to\npretreat the rice straw (RS) by mimicking the natural fungal invasion process. Here, we also elaborated the mechanism\nthrough conducting a systematic study of physicochemical changes before and after pretreatment.\nResults: After synergistic Fenton and B-8 pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield was increased by 15.6Ã¢â?¬â??56.6%\nover Fenton pretreatment alone and 2.7Ã¢â?¬â??5.2 times over untreated RS (98 mg gÃ¢Ë?â??1). Morphological analysis revealed\nthat pretreatment changed the surface morphology of the RS, and the increase in roughness and hydrophilic sites\nenhanced lignocellulose bioavailability. Chemical components analyses showed that B-8 removed part of the lignin\nand hemicellulose which caused the cellulose content to increase. In addition, the important chemical modifications\nalso occurred in lignin, 2D NMR analysis of the lignin in residues indicated that the Fenton pretreatment caused partial\ndepolymerization of lignin mainly by cleaving the Ã?Â²-O-4 linkages and by demethoxylation to remove the syringyl (S)\nand guaiacyl (G) units. B-8 could depolymerize amount of the G units by cleaving the Ã?Â²-5 linkages that interconnect\nthe lignin subunits.\nConclusions: A biomimetic system with a biochemical Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacteria was\nconfirmed to be able for the pretreatment of RS to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis under mild conditions. The high\ndigestibility was attributed to the destruction of the lignin structure, partial hydrolysis of the hemicellulose and partial\nsurface oxidation of the cellulose. The mechanism of synergistic Fenton and B-8 pretreatment was also explored to\nunderstand the change in the RS and the bacterial effects on enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, this biomimetic\nsystem offers new insights into the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass....
A complex of the induction magnetic field two-way nanotransducers of the different physical values for both the external and\r\nimplantable interfaces in a wide range of arrays are summarized. Implementation of the nanowires allows reliable transducing of\r\nthe biosignalsÃ¢â?¬â?¢ partials and bringing of carbon nanotubes into circuits leading to examination of the superconducting transition.\r\nNovel sensors are based on the induction magnetic field principle, which causes their interaction with an ambient EM field.\r\nMathematical description of both the signal and mediums defines space embracing of the relevant interfacing devices. As a result,\r\na wide range of the nano-bio-transducers allow both delivering the variety of ionized biosignals and interface the bioEM signals\r\nwith further stages of electronic systems. The space coverage and transducing values properties of the state-of-the-art magnetic\r\ninterfaces are summarized, and directions for their future development are deduced....
The aim of the research was to determine the optimal threadâ??s shape to be used in implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb\nprosthesis. In addition, by testing appropriate parametersâ?? modification of the suitable thread, an attempt was made to maximise its\neffectiveness. The analyses included three thread types described in the ISO standards: shallow, symmetrical, and asymmetrical. The\nobtained results suggest that shallow thread ensures the lowest equivalent and directional stress peaks generated in the bone as well\nas favourable stress patterns and profiles during implant loading in relation to symmetrical and asymmetrical threads. Moreover,\nshallow thread ensured the generation of single equivalent and directional stress peaks, while symmetrical and asymmetrical\nthreads provided additional stress peak for equivalent as well as for each of directional peaks. Subsequently, optimisation of the\nshallow threadâ??s shape was conducted by changing two relevant threadâ??s parameters (flank angle and rounding arc) which\ninfluence the generated stress distribution. The highest reduction of stress peaks was obtained while reducing the rounding arc\nby 0.2 mm. Therefore, it can be stated that the proposed modification of the HA thread can lead to obtaining a higher\nbiomechanical effectiveness of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis....
The hydrodynamics and energetics of bioinspired oscillating mechanisms have received significant attentions by engineers and\nbiologists to develop the underwater and air vehicles. Undulating and pure heaving (or plunging) motions are two significant\nmechanisms which are utilized in nature to provide propulsive, maneuvering, and stabilization forces. This study aims to elucidate\nand compare the propulsive vortical signature and performance of these two important natural mechanisms through a systematic\nnumerical study. Navier-Stokes equations are solved, by a pressure-based finite volume method solver, in an arbitrary Lagrangian-\nEulerian (ALE) framework domain containing a 2D NACA0012 foil moving with prescribed kinematics. Some of the important\nfindings are (1) the thrust production of the heaving foil begins at lower St and has a greater growing slope with respect to\nthe St; (2) the undulating mechanism has some limitations to produce high thrust forces; (3) the undulating foil shows a lower\npower consumption and higher efficiency; (4) changing the Reynolds number (Re) in a constant St affects the performance of the\noscillations; and (5) there is a distinguishable appearance of leading edge vortices in the wake of the heaving foil without observable\nones in the wake of the undulating foil, especially at higher St....
Background. Compliance mismatch is a negative factor and it needs to be considered in arterial bypass grafting. Objective. A\ncomputational model was employed to investigate the effects of arterial compliance mismatch on blood flow, wall stress, and\ndeformation. Methods.The unsteady blood flow was assumed to be laminar,Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible.The vessel wall\nwas assumed to be linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible.The fluid-wall interaction scheme was constructed using the finite\nelement method. Results. The results show that there are identical wall shear stress waveforms, wall stress, and strain waveforms\nat different locations. The comparison of the results demonstrates that wall shear stresses and wall strains are higher while wall\nstresses are lower at the more compliant section. The differences promote the probability of intimal thickening at some locations.\nConclusions. The model is effective and gives satisfactory results. It could be extended to all kinds of arteries with complicated\ngeometrical and material factors....
Stability boots can protect the ankle ligaments from overloading after serious injury and facilitate protected movement in order to\naid healing of the surrounding soft tissue structures. For comparing different stability shoe designs and prototypes, a reliable and\nfast testing method (FTM) is required. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a novel custom-built device. Six different\nstability boots were tested in a novel device that allowed body weight to be taken into account using a pneumatic actuator. The\nfixation of the boots was controlled using two air pad pressure sensors. The range of motion (RoM) was then assessed during 5\ntrials at physiological ankle joint torques during flexion/extension and inversion/eversion. Furthermore the intraclass correlation\ncoefficient ICC was determined to assess the repetitive reliability of the testing approach. The measured ankle angles ranged from\n3.4Ã¢Ë?Ë? to 25Ã¢Ë?Ë? and proved to be highly reliable (ICC = 0.99), with standard deviations <9.8%. Comparing single trials to one another\nresulted in a change of 0.01Ã¢Ë?Ë? joint angle, with a mean error of 0.02Ã¢Ë?Ë?.The FTM demonstrates that it is possible to reliably measure\nthe ankle joint RoM in both the sagittal and frontal planes at controlled torque levels, together with the application of body weight\nforce....
Background: Noise exposure can lead to hearing loss and multiple system dysfunctions. As various forms of noise\nexist in our living environments, and our auditory organs are very sensitive to acoustic stimuli, it is a challenge to\nprotect our hearing system in certain noisy environments.\nPresentation of the hypothesis: Herein, we propose that our hearing organ could serve as a noise eliminator for\nhigh intensity noise and enhance acoustic signal processing abilities by increasing the signal-noise ratio. For\nsuprathreshold signals, the hearing system is capable of regulating the middle ear muscles and other structures to\nactively suppress the sound level to a safe range.\nTesting the hypothesis: To test our hypothesis, both mathematic model analyses and animal model studies\nare needed. Based on a digital 3D reconstructed model, every structure in the auditory system can be\nanalyzed and tested for its contribution to the process of noise reduction. Products manufactured by this\nbionic method could be used and verified in animal models and volunteers.\nImplications: By mimicking the noise-reduction effect of the sophisticated structures in the hearing system,\nwe may be able to provide a model that establishes a new active-sound-suppression mode. This innovative\nmethod may overcome the limited capabilities of current noise protection options and become a promising\npossibility for noise prevention....
Bioelectronics, an emerging discipline formed by the biology and electronic information
disciplines, has maintained a state of rapid development since its birth. Amongst the various
functional bioelectronics materials, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), with its directional proton pump function
and favorable structural stability properties, has drawn wide attention. The main contents of the
paper are as follows: Inspired by the capacitive properties of natural protoplast cell membranes, a
new bio-capacitor based on bR and artificial nanochannels was constructed. As a point of innovation,
microfluidic chips were integrated into our device as an ion transport channel, which made the
bio-capacitor more stable. Meanwhile, a single nanopore structure was integrated to improve the
accuracy of the device structure. Experiments observed that the size of the nanopore affected the
ion transmission rate. Consequently, by making the single nanopore’s size change, the photocurrent
duration time (PDT) of bR was effectively regulated. By using this specific phenomenon, the original
transient photocurrent was successfully transformed into a square-like wave....
A new method of silver application to a porous ceramic water filter used for point-of-use water treatment is developed. We\nevaluated filter performance for filters manufactured by the conventional method of painting an aqueous suspension of silver\nnanoparticles onto the filter and filters manufactured with a new method that applies silver nitrate to the clay-water-sawdust\nmixture prior to pressing and firing the filter. Filters were evaluated using miscible displacement flow-through experiments with\npulse and continuous-feed injections of E. coli. Flow characteristics were quantified by tracer experiments using [3H]H2O.\nExperiments using pulse injections of E. coli showed similar performance in breakthrough curves between the two application\nmethods. Long-term challenge tests performed with a continuous feed of E. coli and growth medium resulted in similar log\nremoval rates, but the removal rate by nanosilver filters decreased over time. Silver nitrate filters provided consistent removal with\nlower silver levels in the effluent and effective bacterial disinfection. Results from continued use with synthetic groundwater over\n4 weeks, with a pulse injection of E. coli at 2 and 4 weeks, support similar conclusionsÃ¢â?¬â?nanosilver filters perform better initially,\nbut after 4 weeks of use, nanosilver filters suffer larger decreases in performance. Results show that including silver nitrate in the\nmixing step may effectively reduce costs, improve silver retention in the filter, increase effective lifespan, and maintain effective\npathogen removal while also eliminating the risk of exposure to inhalation of silver nanoparticles by workers in developing-world\nfilter production facilities....
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