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Quarterly published in print and online "Inventi Impact: Veterinary Science" publishes high quality unpublished as well as high impact pre-published research and reviews catering to the needs of researchers and professionals. The journal focuses on research and development in the field of veterinary medicine and surgery covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild.
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the\nmandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls\nand mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and\nmandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the\nskulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification\nof the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial\nspecies. Furthermore, the results had clinical importance with regard to regional nerve blocks of the\ninfraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerves for dental extraction and head surgery. This study\nconcluded that by using the anatomical landmarks of the infraorbital and mental foramina it will be\neasier for the veterinarian surgeons during the application of local anesthetic agent for the infraorbital,\ninferior alveolar, and mental nerve blocks....
Background: Horses are often fed high amounts of starch in their diets despite the well-established benefits of a
fibre-based diet to promote gut health and animal welfare. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects
of two different diets – one based on high amounts of starch (HS) vs. one base on high amounts of fibre (HF) – on
specific parameters of the gut environment across different intestinal compartments of the horse digestive tract. To
this end differences in the gastrointestinal environment between HS vs. HF fed horses were assessed in terms of dry
matter, organic matter and ash content; the particle size distribution and volatile fatty acid composition were also
Results: Nineteen Bardigiano horses of 14.3 ± 0.7 months of age and destined to slaughter were divided into two
group pens – one fed with high amounts of starch (HS; n = 9; 43% hay plus 57% starch-rich pelleted feed); vs. fed with
high amounts of fibre (HF; n = 10; 70% hay plus 30% fibre-rich pelleted feed). Horses fed HS diet presented a higher
dry matter content in the right dorsal colon. Moreover, they showed a higher organic matter and ash content in the
sternal flexure, pelvic flexure, right dorsal colon and rectum. In these latter intestinal compartments, horses fed a HS
diet also showed a higher proportion of particles retained on an 8 mm sieve and a higher proportion of particles that
washed through the finest sieve (< 1 mm). Moreover, the total amounts of volatile fatty acids as well as valeric acid
were found to be significantly higher in horses fed the HS vs. HF diet.
Conclusions: A high-starch diet causes significant changes in the horse gut environment. We observed an increase
in the dry matter content in the right dorsal colon, as well as reduced particle sizes and an increase in the production
of valeric acid in all the gut compartments studied. High-starch diets should be avoided in favour of fibre-based diets
with the goal of safeguarding gut health in horses....
Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main\ntreatment goals are to improve the animalÃ¢â?¬â?¢s clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal\npost treatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemo therapeutical approaches.Currently,manual\nextraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular\nendothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To\naddress this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heart worm removal by adapting and folding\na 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heart worm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected\nwith adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and\nadvancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully\nextracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults,\npostoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after\nsurgery....
Background: Premilking udder preparation is essential for harvesting high-quality milk as gently, completely, and\nquickly as possible. The associations between characteristics such as teat-end shape and premilking stimulation on\nmilking characteristics and machine milking-induced changes to the teat tissue condition have not been rigorously\ninvestigated. The primary objective was to investigate the interactive effects of manual premilking stimulation (i.e.,\npreparation lag time) and teat-end shape on total milk yield, two-minute milk yield, milking unit-on time, and time\nin low milk flow rate. Our secondary objective was to study the association of manual premilking stimulation and\nchanges to the teat tissue condition after machine milking (i.e., short-term changes). In a longitudinal prospective\ncohort study, 384 milking observations from 129 cows were analysed. Holstein cows were housed in sand-bedded\nfree-stall pens, fed a total mixed ration, and milked 3 times a day. Cows were classified by teat-end shape into 1 of\n3 categories: pointed, flat, or round. Individual cow milking characteristics were recorded with electronic on-farm\nmilk meters. The duration of manual stimulation, preparation lag time, and presence of short-term changes were\ndocumented for each milking observation. General linear mixed models were used to study the interactive effects\nof preparation lag time and teat-end shape on milking characteristics.\nResults: There was an interaction between preparation lag time and teat-end shape for two-minute milk yield and\ntime in low milk flow rate. The preparation lag time effect was modified by teat-end shape, while no interaction\nwas observed for total milk yield or milking unit-on time. A generalized linear mixed model revealed that\npreparation lag time was associated with short-term changes in teat tissue condition, where the odds of short-term\nchanges decreased as preparation lag time increased.\nConclusions: In summary, cows with different teat-end shapes may require different premilking stimulation\nregimens. Increasing preparation lag time benefits teat tissue condition during machine milking. Further research is\nwarranted to optimize individual premilking stimulation in dairy cows....
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common progressive joint disease in dogs and cats. The goal of OA treatment\nis to reduce inflammation, minimize pain, and maintain joint function. Currently, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory\ndrugs (e.g., meloxicam) are the cornerstone of treatment for OA pain, but side effects with long-term use pose\nimportant challenges to veterinary practitioners when dealing with OA pain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a\nnaturally-occurring fatty acid amide, locally produced on demand by tissues in response to stress. PEA endogenous\nlevels change during inflammatory and painful conditions, including OA, i.e., they are typically increased during acute\nconditions and decreased in chronic inflammation. Systemic treatment with PEA has anti-inflammatory and\npain-relieving effects in several disorders, yet data are lacking in OA. Here we tested a new composite, i.e.,\nPEA co-ultramicronized with the natural antioxidant quercetin (PEA-Q), administered orally in two different rat\nmodels of inflammatory and OA pain, namely carrageenan paw oedema and sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced\nOA. Oral treatment with meloxicam was used as benchmark.\nResults: PEA-Q decreased inflammatory and hyperalgesic responses induced by carrageenan injection, as shown by: (i)\npaw oedema reduction, (ii) decreased severity in histological inflammatory score, (iii) reduced activity of myeloperoxidase,\ni.e., a marker of inflammatory cell infiltration, and (iv) decreased thermal hyperalgesia. Overall PEA-Q showed\nsuperior effects compared to meloxicam. In MIA-treated animals, PEA-Q exerted the following effects: (i) reduced\nmechanical allodynia and improved locomotor function, (ii) protected cartilage against MIA-induced histological\ndamage, and (iii) counteracted the increased serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1\nbeta, metalloproteases 1, 3, 9 and nerve growth factor. The magnitude of these effects was comparable to, or\neven greater than, those of meloxicam Conclusion: The present findings shed new light on some of the inflammatory and nociceptive pathways and\nmediators targeted by PEA-Q and confirm its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects in rodent OA pain\nmodels. The translatability of these observations to canine and feline OA pain is currently under investigation....
Background: Self-sucking is an abnormal behavior lead to important economic losses for dairy farms. The objective
of this study was to evaluate tongue piercing as a novel technique to prevent self-sucking in cattle and buffaloes. The
study was carried out on 26 cows and 4 buffaloes suffered from self-sucking. Tongue piercing was achieved by the
application of an implant in the midline of the tongue and anterior to the frenulum linguae. With a follow up period
of 6 months.
Results: This implant produced mechanical disruption of the affected animals ability to curl their tongues, in a Ushape
manner, subsequently it was impossible for these animals to cup their tongues and suck its own teats. Slight
swelling around the piercing site of the tongue was observed among all animals on the first 3 days after surgery. No
other complications have been reported.
Conclusion: Tongue piercing is an effective, rapid, easy, minimally invasive technique to prevent self-sucking among
cattle and buffaloes, moreover, the technique was more widely acceptable by the owners than other traditional and
Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne\ndisease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within\nthe Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger\ncountries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases\nand, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens\ncan reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals,\nwith animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts. Carriage in animal species can be\nasymptomatic or, in the case of Salmonella in particular, there may be clinical manifestation in animals,\nwhich resemble the disease seen in humans. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of\nthese two foodborne pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago and identify any knowledge gaps in the\npublished literature. The filling of this critical knowledge void is essential for the development and\nimplementation of appropriate mechanisms to reduce the dissemination and transmission of these\npathogens, not only in Trinidad and Tobago, but also in the wider Caribbean....
Background: Brucellosis is a contagious zoonotic disease of great public health and economic significance
especially in developing countries. The disease affects humans and several species of livestock and wildlife. Studies
on Brucellosis in wildlife in Uganda have been limited to single populations particularly in Queen Elizabeth National
Park. This study aimed at estimating the percentage of positive samples of Brucella spp. in wildlife in four major
national parks of Uganda. This was a retrospective survey which utilized archived samples collected from wildlife
during the annual disease surveillance activities between 2013 and 2017.
Results: A total of 241 samples from seven species namely African buffalo (Syncerus caffer, n = 109), African
elephant (Loxodonta africana, n = 22), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi, n = 41), Uganda kob (Kobus kob
thomasi, n = 36), lion (Panthera leo, n = 6), plain zebra (Equus quagga, n = 25), and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, n
= 2), were tested for antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test. The overall percentage of positive samples in the
four national parks was 31.1% (75/241; 95% CI: 25.6–37.2). Kidepo Valley National Park had a significantly higher
percentage of positive samples of 55.9% (19/34; 95% CI: 39.5–71.1) compared to other sampled national parks (p <
0.05). Lions had significantly higher percentage of positive samples at 66.7% (4/6) than African buffalo at 48.6% (53/
109, p < 0.0001). There were no antibodies for Brucella spp. detected in African elephant and bushbuck.
Conclusion: This study shows variations in percentage of positive samples with Brucella spp. between species and
across national parks and notably a high percentage with Brucella spp. in wildlife in Uganda than that recorded
elsewhere in sub-Saharan region of Africa. Potential for transmission to other wildlife and spill over to livestock is
high especially in national parks with high livestock-wildlife interaction....
Flunixin meglumine (FM) was investigated for the effectiveness of plasma, oral fluid, and urine\nconcentrations to predict tissue residue depletion profiles in finishing-age swine, along with the potential for\nuntreated pigs to acquire tissue residues following commingled housing with FM-treated pigs. Twenty pigs were\nhoused in groups of three treated and one untreated control. Treated pigs received one 2.2 mg/kg dose of FM\nintramuscularly. Before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h (h) after treatment, plasma samples were taken.\nAt 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days (d) post-treatment, necropsy and collection of plasma, urine, oral fluid, muscle, liver,\nkidney, and injection site samples took place. Analysis of flunixin concentrations using liquid chromatography/\ntandem mass spectrometry was done. A published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for flunixin\nin cattle was extrapolated to swine to simulate the measured data.\nResults: Plasma concentrations of flunixin were the highest at 1 h post-treatment, ranging from 1534 to 7040 ng/\nmL, and were less than limit of quantification (LOQ) of 5 ng/mL in all samples on Day 4. Flunixin was detected in\nthe liver and kidney only on Day 1, but was not found 4â??16 d post-treatment. Flunixin was either not seen or\nfound less than LOQ in the muscle, with the exception of one sample on Day 16 at a level close to LOQ. Flunixin\nwas found in the urine of untreated pigs after commingled housing with FM-treated pigs. The PBPK model\nadequately correlated plasma, oral fluid and urine concentrations of flunixin with residue depletion profiles in liver,\nkidney, and muscle of finishing-age pigs, especially within 24 h after dosing....
A three year old doberman dog was referred to the clinic with a history of purulent discharges which were noticed on the back region. Dog showed erosions, desquamation of skin with purulent exudates all over the dorsum region. Cytological examination of smears from the skin lesions revealed presence of mixed bacterial infection, presence of more number of neutrophils and free form parasitic infection. Condition was diagnosed as actinic dermatitis and treated with external application of povidone iodine and gentamicin ointment on the day of presentation. Dog was treated with tab. Enrofloxacin @ 5 mg/kg body weight, PO, capsule vitamin E 200 mg PO, along with daily dressing of skin lesions with ointment gentamicin, calamine, allontoin and vitamin E lotion. The skin lesions resolved after two weeks of therapy and complete healthy scar formation was noticed....
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