Current Issue : July-September
Volume : 2023
Issue Number : 3
Articles : 5 Articles
Background: Dirofilaria immitis produces proliferative pulmonary endarteritis and pulmonary
thromboembolism in infected dogs. The pulmonary vascular lesions lead to irreversible
and persistent structural damage and, as a consequence, sustained precapillary pulmonary hypertension
(PH). The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of the pulmonary vein
to pulmonary artery ratio (PV:PA ratio) to determine moderate or severe PH (>50 mmHg) in dogs
with heartworm disease. Methods: A total of 151 naturally heartworm-infected and 66 healthy dogs
were included in the study. The presence/absence of PH was based on the right pulmonary artery
distensibility index (RPAD index < 29.5%), and the PV:PA ratio was echocardiographically measured
by the time–motion mode (M mode) and two-dimensional mode (2D mode). Other echocardiographic
parameters were also assessed (pulmonary trunk to aorta ratio, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient,
and AT:ET ratio). Results: The results of the PV:PA ratio showed a highly positive correlation
between the M and 2D modes (r = 0.928). The PV:PA ratio obtained by the M mode was identified
as the strongest predictor for RPAD index (R2 0.628, p < 0.0001) with a good diagnostic accuracy
(AUC = 0.99). The results of PV/PA by the 2D mode showed a similar prediction for the RPAD index
(R2 0.606, p < 0.0001) with a good diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.98). Both of the 2D and M modes’
PV:PA ratios decreased significantly with the presence of PH. A cut-off value of ≤0.845 showed high
sensitivity and specificity for the M mode (97% and 94%, respectively) and the 2D mode (96% and
93%, respectively). Conclusions: The PV:PA ratio may be useful as a complementary diagnostic
method for the estimation of moderate or severe PH in dogs with heartworm....
Non-human primates contribute to the spread of yellow fever virus (YFV) and the establishment
of transmission cycles in endemic areas, such as Brazil. This study aims to investigate virological,
histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in livers of squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri spp.) infected with the YFV. Viremia occurred 1–30 days post infection (dpi) and the virus
showed a predilection for the middle zone (Z2). The livers were jaundiced with subcapsular and
hemorrhagic multifocal petechiae. Apoptosis, lytic and coagulative necrosis, steatosis and cellular
edema were also observed. The immune response was characterized by the expression of S100,
CD11b, CD57, CD4 and CD20; endothelial markers; stress and cell death; pro and anti-inflammatory
cytokines, as well as Treg (IL-35) and IL-17 throughout the experimental period. Lesions during the
severe phase of the disease were associated with excessive production of apoptotic pro-inflammatory
cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, released by inflammatory response cells (CD4+ and CD8+
T lymphocytes) and associated with high expression of molecules of adhesion in the inflammatory
foci observed in Z2. Immunostaining of the local endothelium in vascular cells and the bile duct
was intense, suggesting a fundamental role in liver damage and in the pathogenesis of the disease....
Brown bears hibernate throughout half of the year as a survival strategy to reduce energy consumption during
prolonged periods with scarcity of food and water. Thyroid hormones are the major endocrine regulators of basal
metabolic rate in humans. Therefore, we aimed to determine regulations in serum thyroid hormone levels in hibernation
compared to the active state to investigate if these are involved in the adaptions for hibernation.
We used electrochemiluminescence immunoassay to quantify total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in
hibernation and active state in paired serum samples from six subadult Scandinavian brown bears. Additionally, we
determined regulations in the liver mRNA levels of three major thyroid hormone-binding proteins; thyroxine-binding
globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR), and albumin, by analysis of previously published grizzly bear RNA sequencing data.
We found that bears were hypothyroid when hibernating with T4 levels reduced to less than 44% (P = 0.008) and T3
levels reduced to less than 36% (P = 0.016) of those measured in the active state. In hibernation, mRNA levels of TBG
and albumin increased to 449% (P = 0.031) and 121% (P = 0.031), respectively, of those measured in the active state.
TTR mRNA levels did not change.
Hibernating bears are hypothyroid and share physiologic features with hypothyroid humans, including decreased
basal metabolic rate, bradycardia, hypothermia, and fatigue. We speculate that decreased thyroid hormone signaling
is a key mediator of hibernation physiology in bears. Our findings shed light on the translational potential of bear
hibernation physiology to humans for whom a similar hypometabolic state could be of interest in specific conditions....
The health and productivity of animals, as well as farmers’ financial well-being, can be
significantly impacted by cattle illnesses. Accurate and timely diagnosis is therefore essential for
effective disease management and control. In this study, we consider the development of models
and algorithms for diagnosing diseases in cattle based on Sugeno’s fuzzy inference. To achieve
this goal, an analytical review of mathematical methods for diagnosing animal diseases and soft
computing methods for solving classification problems was performed. Based on the clinical signs
of diseases, an algorithm was proposed to build a knowledge base to diagnose diseases in cattle.
This algorithm serves to increase the reliability of informative features. Based on the proposed
algorithm, a program for diagnosing diseases in cattle was developed. Afterward, a computational
experiment was performed. The results of the computational experiment are additional tools for
decision-making on the diagnosis of a disease in cattle. Using the developed program, a Sugeno
fuzzy logic model was built for diagnosing diseases in cattle. The analysis of the adequacy of the
results obtained from the Sugeno fuzzy logic model was performed. The processes of solving several
existing (model) classification and evaluation problems and comparing the results with several
existing algorithms are considered. The results obtained enable it to be possible to promptly diagnose
and perform certain therapeutic measures as well as reduce the time of data analysis and increase
the efficiency of diagnosing cattle. The scientific novelty of this study is the creation of an algorithm
for building a knowledge base and improving the algorithm for constructing the Sugeno fuzzy logic
model for diagnosing diseases in cattle. The findings of this study can be widely used in veterinary
medicine in solving the problems of diagnosing diseases in cattle and substantiating decision-making
in intelligent systems....
Wildfires are common occurrences worldwide that can destroy vast forest areas and kill
numerous animals in a few hours. Climate change, rising global temperatures, precipitation, the
introduction of exotic species of plants (e.g., eucalyptus), intensive agriculture, and deforestation
have increased the number of fires and their intensity and destructive power. Nearly 4% of the global
land surface (30–46 million/km2) is burned annually. There are many studies regarding the impact of
wildfires on ecosystems, flora, domestic animals, and humans. Even though wildfires are a common
and recurrent problem around the world, most of the time, they are a neglected issue, especially
regarding wildlife. The information available is scarce and dispersed across several bibliographical
references, and the veterinarian teams, most of the time, need to be trained to act in these situations.
In this brief review, we describe different species’ behavior during a wildfire, the effects on the
ecosystem, and the socioeconomic impact on the region. From a veterinarian’s perspective, we list
the major injuries that are expected to be observed and how to proceed. In conclusion, we discuss
better prevention and response measures in a wildfire scenario. This information can be used by
veterinarians and all the entities involved in the prevention and combat of wildfires, and the general
public has an important role in these situations....
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